# [Tutorial] | Handling.meta

• I decided to write a new tutorial, about one of the most sophisticated yet easy to understand file.

## What is the Handling.meta?

Handling.meta is a file in GTA V, like in previous GTA games, controls the handling and physics of vehicles.
Located in xxxx\common\data.

Examples:

• Grand Theft Auto V\mods\update\update.rpf\common\data
• Grand Theft Auto V\mods\update\x64\dlcpacks\mpbiker\dlc.rpf\common\data

# 1. Parameters

## 1.1. Physical Attributes

### handlingName

Used by the vehicles.meta, to identify the handling line of the particular vehicle.

• Any text no more than 14 characters can be used. The Vanilla vehicles use uppercase letters by default.
Example: ADDER, DINGHY

### fMass

The weight of the vehicle. Values should be given in Kilograms.

• Used when the vehicle collides with another vehicle or a non-static object.

### fInitialDragCoeff

Sets the drag coefficient of the vehicle. Increase to simulate aerodynamic drag.

• Value: 10-120

### fPercentSubmerged

The percentage of the vehicle's "floating height" after it falls into the water, before sinking.

• Default - 85% for vanilla, land vehicles. The value will stop sinking the vehicle to float for a moment before sinking.
Boats excluded.

• Value: Any percentage. Should be given in decimal.
Example: 0.70 (70%)

• An invalid number will cause the vehicle to sink without the driver drowning.

### vecCentreOfMassOffset

Shifts the center of gravity in meters from side to side.

Values:
(0 means that the center of gravity will be in the center of the vehicle.)

• X: -10.0 to 10.0. Positive values move the center of gravity right.
• Y: -10.0 to 10.0. Positive values move the center of gravity forwards.
• Z: -10.0 to 10.0. Positive values move the center of gravity upwards.

### vecInertiaMultiplier

I have no idea what this means, if someone knows, please let me know.

Values:
X: -10.0 to 10.0.
Y: -10.0 to 10.0.
Z: -10.0 to 10.0.

## 1.2. Transmission

These values represent the vehicle's straight line performance.

### fDriveBiasFront

This is used to determine whether a vehicle is front, rear, or four wheel drive.
Thanks for @FoxtrotDelta for telling me about this value.

Values:

• 0.0 means that the vehicle is rear wheel drive.
• 1.0 means that the vehicle is front wheel drive.
• Any value between 0.01 and 0.99 is four wheel drive.
• 0.5 give both front and rear axles equal force, being the perfect 4WD.

### nInitialDriveGears

Obviously, this line determines how many forward speeds/gears a vehicle's transmission contains.

Values: 1 or more.

### fInitialDriveForce

This modifies the game's calculation of drive force (from the output of the transmission).

Values: 0.01 - 2.0 and above.

• 1.0 uses drive force calculation unmodified.
• Values less than 1.0 will in effect give the vehicle less drive force.
• Values greater than 1.0 will produce more drive force.

### fDriveInertia

Describes how fast an engine will rev.

Values: 0.01 - 2.0.

• Default value is 1.0, (or no modification of drive intertia).
• Bigger values = quicker Redline (maximum engine speed)

### fClutchChangeRateScaleUpShift

Clutch speed multiplier on up shifts.

• Bigger numbers = faster shifts.

### fClutchChangeRateScaleDownShift

Clutch speed multiplier on down shifts.

• Bigger numbers = faster shifts

### InitialDriveMaxFlatVel

This determines the vehicle speed at redline in the top gear (not the show).

Setting this value DOES NOT guarantee the vehicle will reach the given speed.

• Multiply the number in the file by 0-82 to get the speed in mph.
• Multiply by 1.32 to get the speed in kph.

Values: 0.00 and above.

### fBrakeForce

Obvious one. Multiplies the game's calculation of deceleration.

• Bigger numbers = harder braking.

Values: 0.01 - 2.0 and above.

• 1.0 uses brake force calculation unmodified.

### fBrakeBiasFront

This line controls the distribution of braking force between the front and rear axles.

Values:
Similar to fDriveBiasFront,

• 0.0 means the rear axle only receives brake force.
• 1.0 means the front axle only receives brake force.
• 0.5 gives both axles equal brake force.
• Values between 0.01 and 0.49 means the rear axle will receive more brake force.
• Values between 0.51 and 0.99 means the front axles will receive more brake force than the rear.

### fHandBrakeForce

Another obvious one. Braking power of the handbrake.

• Bigger numbers = harder braking.
Values: 0.o or above.

### fSteeringLock

This multiplies the game's calculation of the angle of the steer wheel will turn while at full turn.
Steering lock is directly related to over/under-steer.

Values:
0.01 and above.

• Values between 0.1 - 0.2 will simulate a long wheelbase.
• Values around 0.75 and above will turn extremely fast. Higher values will cause the vehicle to spin out easily.

## 1.3. Wheel Traction

The following attributes describe how the vehicle will behave when cornering, accelerating and decelerating etc.

### fTractionCurveMax

Cornering grip of the vehicle as a multiplier of the tire surface friction.

#### fTractionCurveMin

Accelerating/braking grip of the vehicle as a multiplier of the tire surface friction.

### fTractionCurveLateral

Shape of lateral traction curve.

### fTractionSpringDeltaMax

This value determines at what distance above the ground the car will lose traction.

### fLowSpeedTractionLossMult

How much traction is reduced at low speed.

• 0.0 means normal traction. It affects mainly car burnout when pressing gas (W/UP).
• Decreasing value will cause less burnout, less sliding at start.
• Higher value will cause more burnout.

### fCamberStiffnesss

This value modify the grip of the car when you're drifting.

• More than 0 make the car sliding on the same angle you're drifting.
• Less than 0 make your car oversteer
Not recommended to modify it for grip.

### fTractionBiasFront

Determines the distribution of traction from front to rear.

Values: 0.01 - 0.99.

• 0.01 = only rear axle has traction.
• 0.99 = only front axle has traction.
• 0.5 = both axles have equal traction.
• Entering a value of 0.0 or 1.0 causes the vehicle to have no traction.

### fTractionLossMult

Affects how much grip is changed when driving on asphalt and mud

• Higher values make the car less responsive and prone to sliding.

## 1.4. Suspension

The following attributes determine a vehicle's system of springs and shock absorbers.

### fSuspensionForce

Affects how strong suspension is.
1/(Force × Wheels) = Lower limit for zero force at full extension.

### fSuspensionCompDamp

Damping during strut compression.

• Bigger values = stiffer.

### fSuspensionReboundDamp

Damping during strut rebound.

• Bigger values = stiffer.

What the hell is this about? Read this and this and maybe this.

### fSuspensionLowerLimit

Visual limit of how far can wheels move up / down from original position.

### fSuspensionRaise

The amount that the suspension raises the body off the wheels.

### fSuspensionBiasFront

This value determines which suspension is stronger, front or rear.

• If value is above 0.50 then front is stiffer, when below, rear is stiffer.

### fAntiRollBarForce

Larger Numbers = less body roll.

### fAntiRollBarBiasFront

The bias between front and rear for the anti-roll bar

• 0 = front
• 1 = rear

### fRollCentreHeightFront

• Larger Numbers = less rollovers.

Values: (Recommended) -0.15 to 0.15.

### fRollCentreHeightRear

This value modify the weight transmission during an acceleration between the front and rear. high positive value can make your car able to do wheelies.

• Larger Numbers = less rollovers.

Values: (Recommended) -0.15 to 0.15.

## 1.5 Damage.

### fCollisionDamageMult

Multiplies the game's calculation of damage to the vehicle by collision.

### fWeaponDamageMult

Multiplies the game's calculation of damage to the vehicle by weapons.

### fDeformationDamageMult

Multiplies the game's calculation of deformation damage.

fEngineDamageMult
Multiplies the game's calculation of damage to the engine, causing explosion or engine failure.

• Values for the above four: 0.0 - 10.0.

fPetrolTankVolume

Amount of petrol that will leak after damaging a vehicle's tank.

fOilVolume

Amount of oil.

## 1.6. Misc.

### fSeatOffsetDistX

Value: Driver > passenger

### fSeatOffsetDistY

Value: Trunk > hood

### fSeatOffsetDistZ

Value: Undercarriage > roof

Not sure.

### strModelFlags

The following are written in HEX.
Rightmost digit is the first one.

Example:
<strModelFlags>20840018</strModelFlags>

Digit 1 2 4 8
1st IS_VAN IS_BUS IS_LOW IS_BIG
2nd ABS_STD ABS_OPTION ABS_ALT_STD ABS_ALT_OPTION
3rd NO_DOORS TANDEM_SEATS SIT_IN_BOAT HAS_TRACKS
4th NO_EXHAUST DOUBLE_EXHAUST NO1FPS_LOOK_BEHIND CAN_ENTER_IF_NO_DOOR
5th AXLE_F_TORSION AXLE_F_SOLID AXLE_F_MCPHERSON ATTACH_PED_TO_BODYSHELL
6th AXLE_R_TORSION AXLE_R_SOLID AXLE_R_MCPHERSON DONT_FORCE_GRND_CLEARANCE
7th DONT_RENDER_STEER NO_WHEEL_BURST INDESTRUCTIBLE DOUBLE_FRONT_WHEELS
8th RC DOUBLE_RWHEELS MF_NO_WHEEL_BREAK IS_HATCHBACK

### strHandlingFlags

The following are written in HEX.
Rightmost digit is the first one.
Example: <strHandlingFlags>400000</strHandlingFlags>

Digit 1 2 4 8
1st SMOOTH_COMPRESN REDUCED_MOD_MASS
2nd NO_HANDBRAKE STEER_REARWHEELS HB_REARWHEEL_STEER STEER_ALL_WHEELS
3rd FREEWHEEL_NO_GAS NO_REVERSE STEER NO WHEELS
4th CVT ALT_EXT_WHEEL_BOUNDS_BEH DONT_RAISE_BOUNDS_AT_SPEED
5th LESS_SNOW_SINK TYRES_CAN_CLI
6th OFFROAD_ABILITY OFFROAD_ABILITY2 HF_TYRES_RAISE_SIDE_IMPACT_THRESHOLD
7th ENABLE_LEAN HEAVYARMOUR ARMOURED
8th SELF_RIGHTING_IN_WATER IMPROVED_RIGHTING_FORCE

### strDamageFlags

Mentioned doors will be unbreakable.
The following are written in HEX.
Rightmost digit is the first one.

Example: <strDamageFlags>20</strDamageFlags>

Digit 1 2 4 5
1st DRIVER_SIDE_FRONT_DOOR DRIVER_SIDE_REAR_DOOR DRIVER_PASSENGER_SIDE_FRONT_DOOR DRIVER_PASSENGER_SIDE_REAR_DOOR
2st BONNET BOOT

### AIHandling

There are 4 profiles, which AI use when driving the vehicle.

• AVERAGE
• CRAP
• TRUCK
• SPORTS_CAR

# 2. SubHandlingData

Use 3 different sub handling data items. Set type to "NULL", to leave items blank.

Example of a vehicle with no SubHandlingData:

<SubHandlingData>
<Item type="NULL" />
<Item type="NULL" />
<Item type="NULL" />
</SubHandlingData>

### 2.1. CBoatHandlingData

I don't know what all these lines represent, I'll add the description when I found it.

#### fRudderOffsetSubmerge

• Vertical offset of the propeller from bone when determining if submerged or not.

#### fRudderOffsetForce

• The vertical offset of the propeller from bone when force applied.

#### fLowLodAngOffset

• The angular offset from vertical when boat sits on calm water.

### 2.3. CFlyingHandlingData

Used for aircraft that use multiple flight modes.
Example: Hydra.

#### fThrust

The power of the engines.

• The higher the value, the faster aircraft will be.

#### fThrustFallOff

• How much time it takes for engine to go idle.

#### fSideSlipMult

• Side rudder force.

#### fFormLiftMult

• Base lift factor that’s independent from wing’s attack angle.

#### fAttackLiftMult

• Lift factor of the wing’s attack angle while rising.

#### fAttackDiveMult

• Lift factor of the wing’s attack angle while diving.

#### fWindMult

• Wind influence.

#### fTurublenceMagnitudeMax

• Maximum turbulence magnitude of Sine wave motion simulation.

#### fTurublenceForceMulti

• Multiplier of Turbulence vertical force.

#### fTurublenceRollTorqueMulti

• Multiplier of Turbulence y axis force.

#### fTurublencePitchTorqueMulti

• Multiplier of Turbulence x axis force.

#### fBodyDamageControlEffectMult

• Control noise factor contributed from plane damage.

#### fInputSensitivityForDifficulty

• Control noise factor contributed from pilot driving skills.

#### handlingType

• HANDLING_TYPE_FLYING - Normal Flying method of an aircraft.
• HANDLING_TYPE_VERTICAL_FLYING - VTOL mode.

### 2.4. CVehicleWeaponHandlingData

Up to 3 weapons usable per vehicle. (Confirmation needed)
Vehicle Weapon name available weapons.meta.
The following is a list of available weapons.

The description needs confirmation.

Weapon Description
VEHICLE_WEAPON_TANK The main cannon used in The Rhino.
VEHICLE_WEAPON_SPACE_ROCKET
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLANE_ROCKET
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLAYER_LASER The Lazer's cannons.
VEHICLE_WEAPON_ENEMY_LASER Missiles used in NPC Lazers?
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLAYER_BULLET
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLAYER_BUZZARD
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLAYER_HUNTER
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLAYER_LAZER
VEHICLE_WEAPON_SEARCHLIGHT The searchlight in Police Maverick, Buzzard and some other Helicopters.
VEHICLE_WEAPON_WATER_CANNON Used in the Fire Truck.
VEHICLE_WEAPON_RADAR The Radar in boats?
VEHICLE_WEAPON_DUNE
VEHICLE_WEAPON_NOSE_TURRET_VALKYRIE The turret in the nose of the Valkyrie.
VEHICLE_WEAPON_TURRET_VALKYRIE
VEHICLE_WEAPON_TURRET_TECHNICAL Technical's turret.
VEHICLE_WEAPON_PLAYER_SAVAGE
VEHICLE_WEAPON_TURRET_INSURGENT The turret of Insurgent Pick-Up.

### WeaponSeats

The seat number that controls the weapon.
Use 0 there's no weapon set.

Values: 0 - 8.
0 is the driver's seat.

#### fTurretSpeed

• Firing speed of the turret.

### 2.5. CSubmarineHandlingData

Controls the Submersible Handling.

### 2.6. CTrailerHandlingData

Handling of the Trailers.

#### fPosConstraintMassRatio

• Make trailer appear either heavier or lighter than the towing vehicle without changing the real mass.

### 2.8. CBaseSubHandlingData

Used by the Light Rail Vehicle.

### 2.9. CSeaPlaneHandlingData

Dodo's handling.

#### fWeaponDamageScaledToVehHealthMult

• Used by the Rhino.

### This thread is not 100% completed. Please help me in completing it.

##### This thread can be useful to anyone who likes to create vehicle mods for GTA V.

Thanks for everyone who have helped.
It took me more than 5 hours to write.
Thanks for reading.

• @Akila_Reigns

Ty!!!!!

• @DarthPungz No prob. If you like, you can help me to finish it.

• @Akila_Reigns

Ha! I don't know these things, ty again for helping to educate me.

• Thank you for this great knowledge!!
Awesome!

• On suspension raise how much do got put to raise it a little bit?

• excuse me is there any adjustment that can make the rear of the car go down abit cuz now its like the weight is in the front so the rear lift up

• @poomiiee23

There is a setting in vstancer to alter the height of the front & rear suspension independent of one another.

• Honestly I don't know what any of this even means. I just wanted to download 2 vehicles from this site. Can someone please tell me what I'm doing wrong. Joeybjones@gmail.Com
Psn: atlsuperman1

• Hey!

Messing around in the Handling file, and i literally am trying to fight GTAs crap transmission set up..so i was messing with "VECINERTIAMULTIPLIER"
I set Y to 10.00, and the vehicle (a bus) flips over from just steering side to side now, so i assume that's the side to side inertia.. im looking further into it now.

• VECINERTIAMULTIPLIER

Rotational inertia. X rotates as if you were turning, set it to 10 and every time i left the ground the bus would turn about 45 degrees in the direction my wheels were turning
Y is tilt, caused me to flip over onto my side..
I assume Z will be up and down rotation.
Values probably best left low.

• @Ayeobe The way I understand 'vecInertiaMultiplier' to work is that:

x = How your vehicle tilts from side to side (set this low & car will corkscrew easily when jumping)

y = How your vehicle tilts from front to rear (set this low & car will somersault easily when jumping)

z = How the vehicle rotates/turns (ie raising this slightly makes the car slower at turning)

Have a look at this picture: http://image.wikifoundry.com/image/1/gPhN8K8G60yyJ1xIoc7iHg25317/GW500H283
It's just like that. Standard ISO Convention.

I think what you have done setting only one parameter to 10 (that is increasing the inertia by the way, ie making movement on that axis much slower! Not faster!) is that you have slowed it's effect so much that the other 2 axises have become more apparent & generally unstable. GTA V handling is all about balance. If you set only one parameter really high lots of weird things can happen. It's not a good way to test things out where GTA is concerned. Standard ISO convention is also used for 'vecCentreOfMassOffset'.
I hope I don't seem too harsh , I'm in a bit of a rush, just wanted to get this info down so there was no confusion. Try parameters ~3.0>5.0 for 'vecInertiaMultiplier' & you'll see far more predictable outcomes that you will still be able to see having an effect. Best of luck (is it just me or are the smileys on this site a little too eager?! Great, they make me look mental)

• fInitialDriveMaxFlatVel is actually a bit different. It [probably] means top speed to switch to top gear, or something. To get the real top speed in the top gear, throw it through this formula. Top speed is in km/h.

`(top_speed*0.9)/1.2 = fInitialDriveMaxFlatVel` or simply just `fInitialDriveMaxFlatVel = top_speed * 0.75` or whats in the OP already.

That's your speed in the top gear when your RPM is maxed out.

But yeah, GTA doesn't enforce a rev limiter for the gears so it'll continue accelerating beyond this number if drag is small enough or you trick the engine by doing that curb boost bullshit.

Magic number bingo time!
0.9 = gear ratio in the top gear. It's always 0.9. (First gear is 3.33...)
1.2 = ratio between fInitialDriveMaxFlatVel and fDriveMaxFlatVel (wild guess for the name). fDriveMaxFlatVel is what's corresponds to the speed limits in the gears the game multiplies stuff with.

So if you wanna put comparable numbers of the Streiter/E-class V8 with a top speed of 307 kph, put in 230.25 for fInitialDriveMaxFlatVel and the car will reach 307 kph in-game at the rev limit in top gear.

• How in the world does this convert?

<strModelFlags>2084001A</strModelFlags>

• Does anyone know where the handling meta for the ambulance is?

• Does anyone know where the handling meta for the ambulance is?

It's in:

\mods\update\update.rpf\common\data\handling.meta

& is called 'AMBULAN'

• <strHandlingFlags>C008840</strHandlingFlags>
i have this cod in freight
in digit 4th i have 8 but in you table 8 in digit 4 is nothing
and in digit 7th i have C but C is not in your table at all

• Anyone know where the elegy retro custom is?????

• What line would I need to change to prevent a vehicle from tipping over at high speeds (I want to try drifting a Mule but it keeps tipping over)

• When i replace the handling on certain aircraft the flaps completly fuck up. Any solution?

• Is there any way to prevent snapping on curbs?

• @PermissionToLand handling flag, 4th digit = 2

• @Cass Is there a way to mass edit a value for every car? Gonna be a pain in the ass going through every single one to change that.

• @PermissionToLand not really they're all different

• This post is deleted!

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